Indian Poultry Industry is one of the fastest growing segment of the agricultural sector today in India. Production of eggs and Broiler has been rising at a rate of 8 to 10% per annum. Today India is World’s Fifth Largest Egg producer and the Eighteenth Largest Broiler producer. The organized sector of Indian Poultry Industry is contributing 70% of the total output and the 30% in the unorganized sector. Broiler industry is dominated by the Southern states in our country with nearly 60-70% total output coming from these states. States like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra are producing nearly 70% of country’s egg production.
The Indian Poultry Industry has undergone a paradigm shift in structure and operation. A very significant feature of India’s poultry industry is its transformation from a mere backyard activity into a major commercial activity in just about four decades which seems to be really fast. The kind of transformation has involved sizeable investments in breeding, hatching, rearing and processing. Indian farmers have moved from rearing non-descript birds to today’s rearing hybrids such as Hyaline, Shaver, and Babcock which ensure faster growth, good livability, excellent feed conversion and high profits to the rearers. With the rise of middle class and increased urbanization, a major population prefer to go for non-vegetarian. Today about 3 million farmers and 15 million agrarian farmers are employed in the poultry industry that are usually growing poultry ingredients for feed and contribute about ₹26,000 crores to the national income. Three decades ago in India, when egg and broiler production was 10 billion and 30 million, respectively, the total employment numbers in the poultry sector was not much encouraging. Due to demand for poultry increasing and production reaching 37 billion eggs and 1 billion broilers, the poultry industry today employs around 1.6 million people.
There is a considerable variation in per capita consumption between rural and urban areas and also across the region. Per capita consumption of egg is only 7.7 per annum in rural areas compared with 17.8 per annum in urban areas. In seven states, per capita consumption is less than 3.5 per annum. Similarly, per capita consumption of poultry meat is 0.24kg in rural areas and 1.08kg in urban areas.A person should eat half an egg daily, that means 1 egg minimum in 2 days.Since Eggs now a days are produced without the use of male species, so consumable Eggs can never be hatched and it can be consumed as an animal product. This critical point of consumption of egg in the NE Regions are not met and so, a good scope for establishing a Layer or poultry industry in the North Eastern States of India can be seen.
The National Institute of Nutrition has strongly recommended 180 eggs and 11 kg of meat per capita consumption for our nation. At present, Per capita availability for meat is 1.6 kg. Per capita availability for egg is 1.8 kg or 42 eggs. Average consumption for eggs in major cities is 170 eggs. Average consumption for eggs in smaller cities is 40 eggs. Average consumption of developed rural areas is 20 eggs. Average consumption of undeveloped rural areas is only 5 eggs. While 20% of Indian population is vegetarian.
People should know the importance of egg in their health, and thus consumption of egg should be encouraged. As well as, this sector of industry is rising day by day, to meet people’s daily requirement, that it have created many Employment Opportunities.